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Angielskie artyku造 : Cinnamon

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Cinnamon

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree 10-15 m tall, belonging to the family Lauraceae, and a spice obtained from the inner bark of this species. It is native to Sri Lanka. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape, 7-18 cm long. The flowers, which are arranged in panicles, have a greenish colour and a rather disagreeable odour. The fruit is a purple 1 cm berry containing a single seed.

Cinnamon is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavouring material, being largely used in the preparation of some kinds of chocolate and liqueurs. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a "cure" for colds. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde.

The best cinnamon is from Sri Lanka, but the tree is also grown at Tellicherry in Java, Sumatra, the West Indies, Brazil, and Egypt. Sri Lanka cinnamon of fine quality is a very thin smooth bark, with a light-yellowish brown colour, a highly fragrant odour, and a peculiarly sweet, warm and pleasing aromatic taste. Its flavour is due to an aromatic oil which it contains to the extent of from 0.5 to 1%. This essential oil, as an article of commerce, is prepared by roughly pounding the bark, macerating it in sea-water, and then quickly distilling the whole. It is of a golden-yellow colour, with the peculiar odour of cinnamon and a very hot aromatic taste. It consists essentially of cinnamic aldehyde and, by the absorption of oxygen as it ages, darkens in colour and develops resinous compounds.

Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity, and it was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a present fit for monarchs and other great potentates. It is mentioned in Exodus 30: 23, where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Kinnamon) and cassia, and in Proverbs 7: 17-18, where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh, aloe and cinnamon. It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers.

Being a much more costly spice than cassia, that comparatively harsh-flavoured substance is frequently substituted for or added to it. The two barks when whole are easily enough distinguished, and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch), little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality, but when cassia is present a deep-blue tint is produced, the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of the cassia.

Culpepper's Herbal advises a daily draught of cinnamon in "any convenient liquor" against scurvy. Studies have found that using half a teaspoon of cinammon a day significantly reduces blood sugar levels in diabetics. The benefit, which can even be produced by soaking cinnamon in tea, also benefits non-diabetics who have blood sugar problem.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Cinnamon"


Glossary:

evergreen - wiecznie zielony
inner - wewn皻rzny, 鈔odkowy, centralny
bark - kora
species - gatunek
native - ojczysty, rodzimy, rdzenny, miejscowy
ovate-oblong - prostok徠ny, pod逝積y
to arrange - organizowa, porz康kowa, rozmieszcza, uk豉da
panicles: panicle - ki嗆
disagreeable - nieprzyjemny, niemi造
odour - zapach, wo, aromat, smr鏚
berry - jagoda
to contain - zawiera
seed - nasiono, ziarno
principally - g這wnie, szczeg鏊nie
condiment - przyprawa
volatile oil - olej eteryczny, lotny
pungent - ostry, cierpki
scent - zapach, aromat
cinnamic - cynamonowy
smooth - g豉dki, jednolity
fragrant - pachn帷y, aromatyczny
peculiarly - szczeg鏊nie, dziwacznie, osobliwie
pleasing - przyjemny, sympatyczny
extent - zakres, stopie
article of commerce - przedmiot handlu
to pund - wali, t逝c, uciera
to macerate - zmi瘯cza przez moczenie
to distill - destylowa, skrapla
absorption - absorpcja, wch豉nianie
age - starze si
resinous - 篡wiczny
compounds: compound - mieszanka, zwi您ek chemiczny
antiquity - staro篡tno嗆, antyk
cassia - chinskie drzewo z aromtyczna kor
myrrh - mirra
to allude - napomyka, czyni aluzje
comparatively - stosunkowo
harsh-flavoured - o ostrym, szorstkim, cierpkim smaku
distinct - r騜ny, wyr霩niaj帷y si, odr瑿ny
tincture of iodine - kropla jodyny
starch - skrobia
in case of sth - w przypadku czego
tint - odcie, zabarwienie
draught - 造k
scurvy - szkorbut
blood sugar level - poziom glukozy we krwi
diabetics - cukrzyca
to soak - moczy, nasyca
polityka prywatno軼i